mRNA vaccines for protective vaccinations

To date, five mRNA vaccines have been approved for vaccination against covid-19 worldwide, two of them in the EU. Many more are in development, also against other diseases.

Ein mRNA-Strang mittig, mehrere im Hintergrund verschwommen erkennbar.

DiseaseCompany or research instituteNameVaccine contains (if known)Development status
Lyme disease
Lyme diseaseModerna (USA)mRNA-1982 and mRNA-1975mRNA, specific against Borrelia burgderferi (1982) and four Borrelia species, among which are also common in Europe (1975), respectivelypreclinical development
Covid-19 (and Covid-19/flu vaccines)
Covid-19BioNTech / Pfizer (Germany / USA)BNT162b2 (Comirnaty)mRNA in lipid nanoparticlesapproved in the EU; also in the form of two bivalent versions (original strain + BA.1; original strain + BA.4/5)
Covid-19Moderna (USA)mRNA-1273 (Spikevax)mRNA in lipid nanoparticlesapproved in the EU; also in the form of two bivalent versions (original strain + BA.1; original strain + BA.4/5)
Covid-19Gennova Biopharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Emcure (India)HGCO19self-amplifying mRNAapproved in India. The extent to which this vaccine is based on the HDT-301 vaccine from former collaborator HDT Bio is the subject of a legal challenge.
Covid-19Academy of Military Sciences / Walvax Biotechnology / Suzhou Abogen Biosciences (China)ARCoVmRNA for section of spike protein (storable for several months at 2-8 degrees Celsius).Approved in Indonesia; a version adapted to Omikron is in Phase I
Covid-19CSPC Pharmaceutical Group (China)SYS6006mRNAapproved in China
Covid-19Daiichi Sankyo (Japan)DS-5670mRNAfiled for approval in Japan following positive results as a booster in Phase III trial
Covid-19Arcturus Therapeutics (USA) in collaboration with CSL Seqirus (Australia)ARCT-154self-amplifying mRNA (optimized against different Variants of Concern)Phase III; also being tested as a booster
Covid-19AIM Vaccine (China)LVRNA021 (bivalent Delta+Omicron BA.5)Phase IIIPhase III
Covid-19Stemirna Therapeutics (China)SW-BIC-213mRNAPhase III
Covid-19Moderna (USA)mRNA-1283mRNA; processed in such a way that the vaccine is expected to be storable in ordinary freezers at 2 to 5 degrees CelsiusPhase III
Covid-19Providence Therapeutics (Canada) and licensees Biological E (India), Everest Medicines (China) and VaxThera (Colombia).PTX-COVID19-BmRNAPhase II with positive results, also planned for testing in WHO Phase III Solidarity Trial Vaccines study
Covid-19Technovalia (Australia) and Chulalongkorn University (Thailand)ChulaCov19 BNA159mRNAPhase II
Covid-19BioNTech / Pfizer (Germany / USA)BNT162b5 bivalent (WT/OMI BA.2)mRNA in lipid nanoparticles for modified spike proteins of the original strain and of Omikron BA.2Phase II
Covid-19Eyegene (South Korea)EG-COVID-102mRNA in cationic liposomes and TLR4 agonistPhase I/IIa
Covid-19MRC/UVRI and LSHTM Uganda Research Unit (Uganda)LNP-nCOV saRNA-02 VaccinemRNAPhase I
Covid-19HDT Bio (USA)HDT-301self-amplifying mRNA bound to "Lipid InOrganic Nanoparticles" (LION)Phase I in South Korea and Brazil. In 2020, HDT Bio also entered into a collaboration with Gennova (India). Whether its vaccine HGCO19, approved in India in June 2022, is based on it is the subject of a legal dispute.
Covid-19Guangzhou RioBiok. A.mRNAPhase I
Covid-19Gritstone bio (USA)GRT-R910self-amplifying mRNA for multiple antigensPhase I
Covid-19University of Melbourne (Australia)MIPSCo-mRNA-RBD-1mRNA encoding the receptor binding domain of the spike; as part of a combination vaccine with the protein-based beta variant vaccine DoCo-Pro-RBD-1 + MF59®.Phase I
Covid-19GSK / CureVac (UK / Germany)CV0501mRNA vaccine with further developed RNA sequence, additionally modified nucleotides and adaptation to OmikronPhase I
Covid-19Infectious Disease Research Institute (IDRI) / Amyris / Immunity Bio (all USA)AAHI-SC2 and AAHI-SC3"self-adjuvanting" mRNA in so-called "nanostructured lipid carrier" (NLC). Immunity Bio is to take over production.Phase I
Covid-19 / InfluenzaModerna (USA)mRNA-1073mRNA in lipid nanoparticles encoding spike of SARS-CoV-2 (originating strain) and quadrivalent for hemagglutinin of four different influenza virus strainsPhase I/II
Covid-19 / Influenza / RSVModerna (USA)mRNA-1230mRNA in lipid nanoparticlesPhase I
Covid-19 / InfluenzaBioNTech / Pfizer (Germany / USA)BNT162b2 + BNT161mRNA in lipid nanoparticles, quadrivalent with respect to influenza viruses (such as qIRV (22/23) ) and bivalent with respect to SARS-CoV-2 (originating strain and omicron BA.4/5Phase I
Covid-19BioNTech / Pfizer (Germany / USA)BNT162b4mRNA in lipid nanoparticles encoding non-spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 (specifically designed to enhance T-cell response)Phase I (in combination with bivalent BA.4/5-adapted vaccine from the companies).
Covid-19RVAC (Singapore, USA, China)RVM-V001mRNApreclinical development; Phase I trial in preparation
Covid-19Sinopharmk. A.mRNA, adapted to Omikron variantpreclinical development(phase I filed)
Covid-19Selçuk Üniversitesi (Turkey)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19CanSino Biologics / Precision NanoSystems (China / USA)k. A.mRNA in lipid nanoparticlespreclinical development
Covid-19Fudan University / Shanghai JiaoTong University / RNACure Biopharma (China)k. A.mRNA (1. LNP-encapsulated mRNA cocktail encoding VLP; 2. LNP-encapsulated mRNA encoding RBD)Preclinical devel.
Covid-19Centro Nacional Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC) (Spain).k. A.mRNAs derived from replication-incompetent SARS-CoV-2.preclinical devel.
Covid-19University of Tokyo / Daiichi-Sankyo (Japan)k. A.mRNA in lipid nanoparticlespreclinical devel.
Covid-19BIOCAD (Russia)k. A.mRNA in liposomespreclinical development
Covid-19RNAimmune (USA)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo (Russia)k. A.mRNApreclinical devel.
Covid-19eTheRNA (Belgium) and ConserV Bioscience (UK)k. A.mRNA; for intranasal administrationpreclinical devel.
Covid-19Greenlight Biosciences (USA)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19IDIBAPS Hospital Clínic of Barcelona / Hipra (Spain)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19Cell Tech Pharmed (Iran)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19Globe Biotech (Bangladesh)BANCOVIDD614G variant LNP-encapsulated mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19CEA / INSERM (France) (CEA = commissariat à l'énergie atomique)NanoCov2-Vacencapsulated mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19Ziphius Vaccines and Ghent University (Belgium / Belgium)ZIP-1642two self-amplifying mRNAs, for the receptor binding domain of the spike protein and the nucleocapsid protein, in lipid nanoparticlesPreclinical development; positive results published
Covid-19baseclick (Germany)BCV-193NmRNA encoding the nucleocapsid protein, linked to a sugar molecule, but without a lipid envelopepreclinical development, phase I in preparation
Covid-19Sorrento Therapeutics (USA)MultiValent STI mRNA vaccinemRNAs for different spike variants; for i.m. injection or needle-free application into a lymph nodepreclinical development (with positive results)
Covid-19ST Pharm (South Korea)tbdmRNA in lipid nanoparticles (Genevant technology)preclinical development
Covid-19Capricor (USA)tbdmRNA, exosome-based processingpreclinical development
Covid-19Longuide (China)tbdmRNA in nanoparticlespreclinical development
Covid-19Enesi Pharma (UK) / Imperial College London (UK)tbdself-amplifying mRNA (from Imperial College London) and ImplaVax technology and Polyplex DNA/RNA stabilization (from Enesi); vaccine to be stable at temperatures up to 40 degrees Celsiuspreclinical development
Covid-19Phylex BioSciences (USA)tbdmRNA (bivalent: encodes receptor binding domain of delta and omicron variant spike proteins)preclinical development
Covid-19Tonix Pharmaceuticals and Kansas State University (both USA)TNX-3700mRNA encoding the spike protein; formulation with zinc nanoparticles instead of lipid nanoparticles, which may keep the vaccine stable under lower cooling conditionspreclinical development
Covid-19mCureX (South Korea) (subsidiary of OliX Pharmaceuticals) / Samyang Holdings (South Korea) / GC PharmatbdmRNAResearch phase
Covid-19Helix Nanotechnologies (USA)tbdmRNAResearch phase
Covid-19Afrigen Biologics and Vaccines (South Africa)tbdmRNA (mimicked Moderna vaccine) in nanoparticles (developed in collaboration with Curapath [Spain and USA])Research phase
Covid-19SK Bioscience (South Korea)tbdmRNAResearch phase or preclinical development
Covid-19 and other beta-coronavirus infectionsBioNet (France - Thailand(1) / University of Pennsylvania, Univ. of North Carolina and Univ. of California-Davis (USA) / Chulalongkorn University (Thailand) / International Vaccine Institute (South Korea)mRNAwith mRNA for different proteins from SARS-CoV-2; should protect against infections with all beta-coronaviruses, which include SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV, including different variants. The project is funded by CEPI; in return, the consortium has pledged to provide easy access to the vaccine for poorer countries if successful.probably laboratory stage
Covid-19 and other beta-coronavirus infections.Ethris (Germany) and DIOSynVax (UK)ETH 50mRNA in lipid nanoparticlesprobably laboratory stage; sponsored by CEPI
Covid-19CSL (Australia)saRNA (technology licensed from Arcturus [USA])Research phase
Chlamydial infections
Chlamydial infectionsZiphius Vaccines (Belgium)ZIP-008self-amplifying mRNApreclinical devel.
Cytomegalovirus infection (CMV infection)
CMV infectionModerna (USA)mRNA-1647six mRNAs (five encode the pentamer complex, one encodes gB)in phase III with females aged 16-40; in phase I/II with adolescents of both sexes
DengueZiphius Vaccines (Belgium)ZIP-019mRNApreclinical devel.
Genital herpes (infection with HSV-2)
Genital HerpesBioNTechBNT163mRNAPhase I study since 12/2022
Genital HerpesModernamRNA-1608mRNApreclinical development
Influenza [see also Covid 19 / Influenza].
InfluenzaPfizer (in collaboration with BioNTech) (USA)qIRV (22/23)quadrivalent vaccine with modRNA encoding antigens of the virus strains recommended by WHO for the northern hemisphere for 2022/23Phase III in the USA
Influenza, seasonalModerna (USA)mRNA-1010mRNAs (quadrivalent: A H1N1, A H3N2, B Yamagata, B Victoria)Phase III
InfluenzaSanofi Pasteur and Translate Bio (France / USA)SP0273mRNA for hemagglutinin of A/H3N2 in lipid nanoparticles; two different formulationsPhase I
InfluenzaCureVac (Germany) / GSK (UK)Flu-SV mRNAmRNA, modified, monovalentPhase I
FluCureVac (Germany) / GSK (UK)tbdmRNA, modified, tetravalentPhase I
Influenza, seasonalModerna (USA)mRNA-1020 and mRNA-1030Two vaccines with eight mRNAs (each for hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from the four WHO-selected influenza virus strains) undergoing comparative testing.Phase II
InfluenzaModerna (USA)mRNA-1011 and mRNA-1012Two vaccines with more than eight mRNAs (each for hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from the four WHO-selected influenza virus strains plus one or two additional hemagglutinins from other strains)Phase II
InfluenzaPfizer (USA)PF-07852352 influenza saRNA 1, PF-07836391 influenza saRNA, PF-07836394 influenza saRNA, PF-07836395 influenza saRNA, PF-07836396 influenza saRNA, PF-07867246 influenza saRNA.Vaccines with self-amplifying RNAs encoding antigens of influenza virusesPhase I in the USA
Influenza (seasonal)Arcturus (USA) and CSL BehringLUNAR-FLUmRNA in Lipid-enabled and Unlocked Nucleomonomer Agentpreclinical development
Influenza (pandemic)Arcturus (USA)LUNAR-FLUmRNA in Lipid-enabled and Unlocked Nucleomonomer Agentpreclinical development (funded by BARDA)
InfluenzaStemirna Therapeutics (China)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
InfluenzaCSL Seqirus (Australia)k. A.Self-amplifying mRNA, bicistronic (i.e., coding sequences for the proteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase in the same mRNA).preclinical development
Universal influenza vaccineUniversity of Pennsylvania (USA)k. A.mRNA encoding the hemagglutinin proteins of all 20 known influenza A and B subtypespre-clinical development
Universal influenza vaccineCureVac / Bill & Melinda Gates Foundationk. A.mRNAResearch phase
ShinglesBioNTech / PfizerBNT167mRNAPhase I/II since February 2023
ShinglesModernamRNA-1468mRNAPhase I
ShinglesStemirna (China)tbdmRNApreclinical development
HIV infections
HIV infectionModerna / International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) (USA/USA)mRNA-1644 / mRNA-1644v2 core (vaccines to be used sequentially [prime-boost concept])mRNA (for the first vaccine eOD-GT8 60mer; for the second core-g28v2 60mer)Phase I in Rwanda and South Africa
HIV infectionModerna (USA) / IAVI / BMGF / NIAID et al.mRNA-1574mRNAPhase I
HIV infectionBioNTech / B&M Gates Foundation (Germany / USA)tbdmRNATarget identification
HPV infection
HPV infectionStemirna Therapeutics (China)tbdmRNAResearch stage or preclinical development.
Lassa fever, yellow fever
Lassa fever, yellow feverCureVac / CEPI (Germany)k. A.mRNApreclinical devel.
Lyme borreliosis see Lyme disease
MalariaBioNTech (Germany) / kENUP foundation ("eradicateMalaria" initiative), supported by WHO and Africa Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC)BNT165b1mRNA encoding specific regions of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP).Phase I since December 2022, following basic work.
MalariaCureVac / Bill & Melinda Gates FoundationtbdmRNAResearch phase
MalariaeTheRNA (Belgium)tbdmRNADiscovery/Lead Phase
MalariaStemirna (China)tbdmRNAearly preclinical devel.
MERS (MERS-CoV infection)
MERSStemirna Therapeutics (China)tbdmRNAResearch phase
Metapneumovirus infection (hMPV infection)
Metapneumovirus or parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) infection, pediatricModerna (USA)mRNA-1653mRNAPhase I
Infection with metapneumovirus or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), pediatricModerna (USA)mRNA-1365mRNApreclinical development
NipahModerna (USA)mRNA-1215mRNAPhase I
M-PoxStemirna (China)tbdmRNAearly preclinical development
Norovirus infections
Norovirus infectionsModerna (USA)mRNA-1405 and mRNA-1403mRNA, pentavalent (1405) and trivalent (1403), respectivelypreclin. Development
Pfeiffer's glandular fever and latent Epstein-Barr virus infection (EBV infection)
Epstein-Barr virus infectionModerna (USA)mRNA-1189mRNAPhase I
Epstein-Barr virus infectionModerna (USA)mRNA-1195mRNApreclinical development
Epstein-Barr virus infectionStemirna Therapeutics (China)tbdmRNAResearch phase or preclinical devel.
Rotavirus infections
Rotavirus InfectionsCureVac / Bill & Melinda Gates FoundationtbdmRNAResearch phase
RSV infection (caused by respiratory syncytial virus)
RSV infectionSanofiRSV mRNA LNP CL-0059 and LNP CL-0137, respectivelymRNA in two different lipid nanoparticle formulationsPhase I/II
RSV infectionModerna (USA)mRNA-1345mRNAPhase III for older adults completed, Phase I for children
see also combination vaccine from Moderna under "Metapneumovirus infection
RSV infectionsCureVac (Germany)k. A.mRNApreclinical devel.
RSV infectionsStemirna (China)k. A.mRNApreclinical devel.
RSV infectionsAIM Vaccine (China)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
RabiesCureVac (Germany)CV7202mRNA in lipid nanoparticlesPhase I
RabiesStemirna (China)tbdmRNApreclinical development
RabiesProvidence Therapeutics (Canada) and Everest Medicines (China)tbdmRNApreclinical development
RabiesAIM Vaccine (China)tbdmRNApreclinical development
TuberculosisBioNTech / B&M Gates Foundation (Germany / USA)BNT-164mRNAPhase I since 04/2023
TuberculosisStemirna Therapeutics (China)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
West Nile virus infections
West Nile virus infectionsFraunhofer IZI (Germany)tbdmRNAResearch phase or preclinical development
ZikaModerna (USA)mRNA-1893mRNAPhase II

(1) )Member of the Developing Country Vaccine Manufacturing Network (DCVMN)

Sources: WHO + company websites