mRNA vaccines for protective vaccinations

To date, two mRNA vaccines have been approved for vaccination against covid-19 worldwide, including in the EU. Many more are in development, also against other diseases.

Computergenerierte 3D-Illustration mit RNA-Helix und Durchstechflasche mit der Aufschrift Covid-19 mRNA Vaccine

DiseaseCompany or research instituteNameVaccine contains (if known)Development status
Covid-19BioNTech / Pfizer (Germany / USA)BNT162b2 (Comirnaty)mRNA in lipid nanoparticlesapproved in the EU
Covid-19Moderna (USA)mRNA-1273 (Spikevax)mRNA in lipid nanoparticlesapproved in the EU
Covid-19Academy of Military Sciences / Walvax Biotechnology / Suzhou Abogen Biosciences (China)ARCoVmRNAPhase III
Covid-19Arcturus Therapeutics (USA)ARCT-154self-amplifying mRNA (optimized against different Variants of Concern)Phase III; also being tested as a booster
Covid-19Gennova Biopharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Emcure (India)HGCO19self-amplifying mRNAPhase III
Covid-19Moderna (USA)mRNA-1273,211mRNA (bivalent: against Beta and Wuhan)Phase II for booster vaccination
Covid-19Moderna (USA)mRNA-1273.213mRNA (bivalent: against Beta and DeltaPhase II, for booster vaccination
Covid-19Arcturus Therapeutics (USA)ARCT-021self-amplifying mRNAPhase II
Covid-19Providence Therapeutics (Canada) and licensees Biological E (India), Everest Medicines (China) and VaxThera (Colombia).PTX-COVID19-BmRNAPhase II and soon to be launched in the WHO Solidarity Trial Vaccines Phase III study.
Covid-19Daiichi Sankyo (Japan)DS-5670amRNAPhase II (Phase I part successfully completed)
Covid-19Moderna (USA)mRNA-1283mRNA; processed in such a way that the vaccine is expected to be storable in ordinary freezersPhase II
Covid-19Arcturus Therapeutics (USA)ARCT-165Self-amplifying mRNA in lipid nanoparticles (optimized against different Variants of Concern).Phase I/II; for booster vaccination
Covid-19Elixirgen Therapeutics (USA) (vaccine licensed to as yet unnamed company)EXG-5003self-amplifying mRNA with the sequence for the receptor binding domain in the spike of SARS-CoV-2; applied intradermallyPhase I/II
Covid-19Imperial College London (UK)LNP-nCoV saRNAself-amplifying mRNAphase I
Covid-19MRC/UVRI and LSHTM Uganda Research Unit (Uganda)LNP-nCOV saRNA-02 VaccinemRNAPhase I
Covid-19Chulalongkorn University (Thailand)ChulaCov19 mRNAmRNAPhase I
Covid-19GSK (UK)GSK4184258A (CoV2 SAM)self-amplifying mRNAPhase I
Covid-19HDT Bio (USA)HDT-301self-amplifying mRNA bound to Lipid InOrganic Nanoparticles (LION)Phase I in South Korea and Brazil and India (there in partnership with Gennova)
Covid-19China CDC / Tongji University / Stemirna (China)k. A.self-amplifying mRNAPhase I
Covid-19Gritstone bio (USA)GRT-R910self-amplifying mRNA for multiple antigensPhase I
Covid-19Infectious Disease Research Institute (IDRI) / Amyris / Immunity Bio (all USA)k. A."self-adjuvanting" mRNA in so-called "nanostructured lipid carrier" (NLC). Immunity Bio to take over production.preclinical devel.
Covid-19Selçuk Üniversitesi (Turkey)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19CanSino Biologics / Precision NanoSystems (China / USA)k. A.mRNA in lipid nanoparticlespreclinical development
Covid-19Fudan University / Shanghai JiaoTong University / RNACure Biopharma (China)k. A.mRNA (1. LNP-encapsulated mRNA cocktail encoding VLP; 2. LNP-encapsulated mRNA encoding RBD)Preclinical devel.
Covid-19Centro Nacional Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC) (Spain).k. A.mRNAs derived from replication-incompetent SARS-CoV-2.preclinical devel.
Covid-19University of Tokyo/ Daiichi-Sankyo (Japan)k. A.mRNA in lipid nanoparticlespreclinical devel.
Covid-19BIOCAD (Russia)k. A.mRNA in liposomespreclinical development
Covid-19RNAimmune (USA)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo (Russia)k. A.mRNApreclinical devel.
Covid-19eTheRNA (Belgium) and ConserV Bioscience (UK)k. A.mRNA; for intranasal administrationpreclinical devel.
Covid-19Greenlight Biosciences (USA)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19IDIBAPS Hospital Clínic of Barcelona / Hipra (Spain)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19Cell Tech Pharmed (Iran)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19Globe Biotech (Bangladesh)BANCOVIDD614G variant LNP-encapsulated mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19CEA / INSERM (France) (CEA = commissariat à l'énergie atomique)NanoCov2-Vacencapsulated mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19Ziphius Vaccines and Ghent University (Belgium / Belgium)ZIP-1642self-amplifying mRNA for multiple antigens in lipid nanoparticlespreclinical development
Covid-19baseclick (Germany)BCV-193NmRNA encoding nucleocapsid protein linked to a sugar molecule but without a lipid coatpreclinical development, phase I in preparation
Covid-19Sorrento Therapeutics (USA)k. A.mRNAs for different spike variants; for i.m. injection or needle-free application into a lymph nodepreclinical development
Covid-19ST Pharm (South Korea)tbdmRNA in lipid nanoparticles (Genevant technology)preclinical development
Covid-19Eyegene (South Korea)EG CovidmRNA in cationic liposomes and TLR4 agonistpreclinical development
Covid-19Capricor (USA)tbdmRNA, exosome-based processingpreclinical development
Covid-19Daiichi Sankyo and University of MunichtbdmRNA in nanocarrier system optimized for lymphocyte activationpreclinical development
Covid-19Longuide (China)tbdmRNA in nanoparticlespreclinical development
Covid-19Enesi Pharma (UK) / Imperial College London (UK)tbdself-amplifying mRNA (from Imperial College London) and ImplaVax technology and Polyplex DNA/RNA stabilization (from Enesi); vaccine to be stable at temperatures up to 40 degrees Celsiuspreclinical development
Covid-19Phylex BioSciences (USA)tbdmRNA (bivalent: encodes receptor binding domain of delta and omicron variant spike proteins)preclinical development
Covid-19Tonix Pharmaceuticals and Kansas State University (both USA)TNX-3700mRNA encoding the spike protein; formulation with zinc nanoparticles instead of lipid nanoparticles, which may keep the vaccine stable under lower cooling conditionspreclinical development
Covid-19mCureX (South Korea) (subsidiary of OliX Pharmaceuticals) / Samyang Holdings (South Korea) / GC PharmatbdmRNAResearch phase
Covid-19Helix Nanotechnologies (USA)tbdmRNAResearch phase
Covid-19Afrigen Biologics and Vaccines (South Africa)tbdmRNA (mimicked the Moderna vaccine)Research phase
Covid-19 and other beta-coronavirus infectionsBioNet (France - Thailand) (1) / University of Pennsylvania, Univ. of North Carolina and Univ. of California-Davis (USA) / Chulalongkorn University (Thailand) / International Vaccine Institute (South Korea)mRNAwith mRNA for different proteins from SARS-CoV-2; should protect against infections with all beta-coronaviruses, which include SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV, including different variants. The project is funded by CEPI; in return, the consortium has pledged to provide easy access to the vaccine for poorer countries if successful.probably laboratory stage
Chlamydia infections
Chlamydia infectionsZiphius Vaccines (Belgium)tbdself-amplifying mRNApreclinical devel.
Cytomegalovirus infection (CMV infection)
CMV infectionModerna (USA)mRNA-1647six mRNAs (five encode the pentamer complex, one encodes gB)Phase III
Genital herpes (infection with HSV-2)
Genital HerpesBioNTechtbdmRNApreclinical development
Genital HerpesModernamRNA-1608mRNAResearch phase or preclinical devel.
Influenza, seasonalModerna (USA)mRNA-1010mRNAs (quadrivalent: A H1N1, A H3N2, B Yamagata, B Victoria)Phase II
InfluenzaSanofi Pasteur and Translate Bio (France / USA)SP0273mRNA for hemagglutinin of A/H3N2 in lipid nanoparticles; two different formulationsPhase I
Avian influenza H7N9Moderna (USA)mRNA-1851mRNA, monovalent against virus strain H7N9Phase I
InfluenzaPfizer (in collaboration with BioNTech) (USA)BNT161self-amplifying mRNA; initially monovalent, later multivalentPhase I in the USA
InfluenzaCureVac (Germany) / GSK (UK)CVSQIVmRNA (second generation)Phase I
InfluenzaArcturus (USA)LUNAR-FLUmRNA in "Lipid-enabled and Unlocked Nucleomonomer Agent".preclinical development
FluStemirna (China)k. A.mRNApreclinical devel.
FluSeqirus (Australia)k. A.self-amplifying mRNApreclinical development
Universal influenza vaccineCureVac / Bill & Melinda Gates Foundationk. A.mRNAResearch phase
ShinglesBioNTech / Pfizerk. A.mRNAPreclinical development
ShinglesModernamRNA-1468mRNAResearch phase or preclinical development
Hepatitis C
Hepatitis CZiphius Vaccines (Belgium)tbdself-amplifying mRNApreclinical devel.
HIV infections
HIV infectionModerna / International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) (USA/USA)mRNA-1644 / mRNA-1644v2 core (vaccines to be used sequentially [prime-boost concept])mRNA (for the first vaccine eOD-GT8 60mer; for the second core-g28v2 60mer)Phase I
HIV infectionModerna / National Institutes of Health (USA / USA)mRNA-1574mRNApreclinical development
HIV infectionBioNTech / B&M Gates Foundation (Germany / USA)tbdmRNATarget identification
HPV infection
HPV infectionZiphius Vaccines (Belgium)tbdself-amplifying mRNApreclinical development
HPV infectionsStemirna (China)tbdmRNAResearch phase or preclinical devel.
Lassa fever, yellow fever
Lassa fever, yellow feverCureVac / CEPI (Germany)k. A.mRNApreclinical devel.
MalariaCureVac / Bill & Melinda Gates FoundationtbdmRNAResearch phase
MalariaBioNTech (Germany) / kENUP Foundation ("eradicateMalaria" initiative), supported by WHO and Africa Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC)tbdmRNAFundamental work with the goal of starting clinical trials by the end of 2022.
MalariaeTheRNA (Belgium)tbdmRNADiscovery/lead phase
Metapneumovirus infection (hMPV infection)
Metapneumovirus or parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) infection, pediatricModerna (USA)mRNA-1653mRNAPhase I
Infection with metapneumovirus or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), pediatricModerna (USA)mRNA-1365mRNApreclinical development
NipahModerna (USA)mRNA-1215mRNApreclinical devel.
Pfeiffer's glandular fever and latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection
Epstein-Barr virus infectionModerna (USA)mRNA-1189mRNAPhase I
Epstein-Barr virus infectionModerna (USA)mRNA-1195mRNApreclinical development
Epstein-Barr virus infectionStemirna (China)tbdmRNAResearch phase or preclinical devel.
Rotavirus infections
Rotavirus infectionsCureVac / Bill & Melinda Gates FoundationtbdmRNAResearch phase
RSV infection (caused by respiratory syncytial virus)
RSV infectionModerna (USA)mRNA-1345mRNAPhase II for adults, Phase I for children
see also combination vaccine from Moderna under "Metapneumovirus infection
RSV infectionsCureVac (Germany)k. A.mRNApreclinical devel.
RSV infectionsZiphius Vaccines (Belgium)tbdself-amplifying mRNApreclinical devel.
RabiesCureVac (Germany)CV7202mRNA in lipid nanoparticlesPhase I
TuberculosisStemirna (China)k. A.mRNApreclinical devel.
TuberculosisBioNTech / B&M Gates Foundation (Germany / USA)tbdmRNATarget identification
ZikaModerna (USA)mRNA-1893mRNAPhase II

(1) Member of the Developing Country Vaccine Manufacturing Network (DCVMN)

Sources: WHO + company websites