mRNA vaccines for protective vaccinations

So far, two mRNA vaccines have been approved for vaccination against covid-19; a third is in rolling review with the European Medicines Agency (EMA). And many more are in development, also against other diseases.

Computergenerierte 3D-Illustration mit RNA-Helix und Durchstechflasche mit der Aufschrift Covid-19 mRNA Vaccine

DiseaseCompany or research instituteNameVaccine typeDevelopment status
Covid-19BioNTech / Pfizer (Germany / USA)BNT162b2 (Comirnaty)mRNA vaccinelicensed in the EU
Covid-19Moderna (USA)mRNA-1273 (Spikevax)mRNA vaccine with lipid nanoparticleslicensed in the EU
Covid-19CureVac (Germany)CVnCoVmRNA vaccinePhase III / Rolling Review in the EU
Covid-19Academy of Military Sciences / Walvax Biotechnology / Suzhou Abogen Biosciences (China)ARCoVmRNA vaccinePhase III
Covid-19Arcturus Therapeutics (USA)ARCT-021self-replicating mRNA vaccinePhase III (WHO Solidarity Vaccines Trial) since 09/2021
Covid-19Moderna (USA)mRNA-1273.211mRNA vaccine (multivalent vaccine for booster vaccination)Phase II/III
Covid-19Arcturus Therapeutics (USA)ARCT-154self-replicating mRNA vaccine (optimized against different Variants of Concern)Phase II/III
Covid-19Providence Therapeutics (Canada) and licensees Biological E (India) and Everest Medicines (China)PTX-COVID19-BtbdPhase II
Covid-19Daiichi Sankyo (Japan)DS-5670amRNA vaccinePhase I/II (Phase I part successfully completed)
Covid-19Arcturus Therapeutics (USA)ARCT-165self-replicating mRNA vaccine with lipid nanoparticles (optimized against different variants of concern)Phase I/II
Covid-19Elixirgen Therapeutics (USA)EXG-5003self-replicating mRNA vaccine with the sequence for the receptor binding domain in the spike of SARS-CoV-2, which is applied intradermally; licensed to another, as yet unnamed companyPhase I/II
Covid-19Imperial College London (UK)LONP-nCoVsaRNAVaccine with self-amplifying RNAPhase I
Covid-19Chulalongkorn University (Thailand)ChulaCov19 mRNAtbdPhase I
Covid-19GSK (UK)CoV2 SAMVaccine with self-amplifying RNAPhase I
Covid-19HDT Bio (USA)HDT-301Vaccine with self-amplifying mRNA bound to Lipid InOrganic Nanoparticles (LION)Phase I
Covid-19Gennova BiopharmaceuticalsSubsidiary(1) / HDT Biotech (India / USA)HGCO19self-amplifying mRNA bound to Lipid InOrganic Nanoparticles (LION)Phase I
Covid-19Moderna (USA)mRNA-1283mRNA vaccine expected to be storable in ordinary freezersPhase I
Covid-19China CDC / Tongji University / Stemirna (China)k. A.Vaccine with self-amplifying RNAPhase I
Covid-19MRC/UVRI and LSHTM Uganda Research Unit (Uganda)LNP-nCOV saRNA-02 VaccinemRNA vaccinePhase I
Covid-19Gritstone bio (USA)GRT-R910mRNA vaccine with self-amplifying mRNA; expression of multiple antigensPhase I
Covid-19Infectious Disease Research Institute (IDRI) / Amyris (USA / USA)k. A.self-adjuvanting RNA in nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC)preclinical development
Covid-19Selçuk Üniversitesi (Turkey)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19CanSino Biologics / Precision NanoSystems (China / USA)k. A.Vaccine with mRNA in lipid nanoparticlespreclinical development
Covid-19Fudan University / Shanghai JiaoTong University / RNACure Biopharma (China)k. A.1. LNP-encapsulated mRNA cocktail encoding VLP; 2. LNP-encapsulated mRNA encoding RBDpreclinical development
Covid-19Centro Nacional Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC) (Spain)k. A.Replicating Defective SARS-CoV-2 derived RNAspreclinical development
Covid-19University of Tokyo/ Daiichi-Sankyo (Japan)k. A.mRNA in lipid nanoparticlespreclinical development
Covid-19BIOCAD (Russia)k. A.mRNA in liposomespreclinical development
Covid-19RNAimmune (USA)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19FBRI SRC VB VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo (Russia)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19eTheRNA (Belgium) and ConserV Bioscience (UK)k. A.mRNA for intranasal deliverypreclinical development
Covid-19Greenlight Biosciences (USA)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19IDIBAPS Hospital Clinic (Spain)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19Cell Tech Pharmed (Iran)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19Globe Biotech (Bangladesh)BANCOVIDD614G variant LNP-encapsulated mRNApreclinical development
Covid-19CEA / INSERM (France) (CEA = commissariat à l'énergie atomique)NanoCov2-VacmRNA, encapsulatedpreclinical development
Covid-19Ziphius Vaccines and Ghent University (Belgium / Belgium)ZIP-1642self-amplifying mRNA for multiple antigens in lipid nanoparticlespreclinical development
Covid-19baseclick (Germany)BCV-193NmRNA encoding the nucleocapsid protein; linked to a sugar but not encapsulated in lipidspreclinical development, phase I in preparation
Covid-19Sorrento Therapeutics (USA)k. A.mRNA, multivalent (i.e. several mRNAs coding for different spike variants); for i.m. injection or needle-free application into a lymph nodepreclinical development
Covid-19ST Pharm (South Korea)tbdmRNA in lipid nanoparticles (Genevant technology)preclinical development
Covid-19Eyegene (South Korea)EG-CovidmRNA in cationic liposomes and TLR4 agonistpreclinical development
Covid-19Capricor (USA)tbdExosome-based mRNA vaccinepreclinical development
Covid-19Daiichi Sankyo and University of MunichtbdmRNA in nanocarrier system optimized for lymphocyte activationpreclinical development
Covid-19Longuide (China)tbdmRNA in nanoparticlespreclinical development
Covid-19Enesi Pharma (UK) / Imperial College London (UK)tbdVaccine with self-amplifying RNA (from Imperial College) and ImplaVax technology and Polyplex DNA/RNA stabilization (from Enesi), designed to be stable at temperatures up to 40 degrees Celsiuspreclinical development
Covid-19mCureX (South Korea) (subsidiary of OliX Pharmaceuticals) / Samyang Holdings (South Korea) / GC PharmatbdVaccine with mRNAResearch phase
Covid-19Helix Nanotechnologies (USA)tbdVaccine with mRNAResearch phase
Chlamydia infections
Chlamydia infectionsZiphius Vaccines (Belgium)tbdself-amplifying mRNApreclinical development
CMV infection
CMV infectionModerna (USA)mRNA-1647six mRNAs (five coding for the pentamer complex, one for gB)Phase II
InfluenzaSanofi Pasteur and Translate Bio (France / USA)MRT5400 and MRT5401mRNA vaccine, monovalent (hemagglutinin of A/H3N2), with lipid nanoparticles; two different formulationsPhase I
Influenza, seasonalModerna (USA)mRNA-1010mRNA vaccine, quadrivalent (A H1N1, A H3N2, B Yamagata, B Victoria)Phase I/II
Avian influenza H7N9Moderna (USA)mRNA-1851mRNA vaccine, monovalent against virus strain H7N9Phase I
InfluenzaPfizer (in collaboration with BioNTech) (USA)BNT161Vaccine with self-amplifying mRNA; initially monovalent, later multivalentPhase I in the USA
InfluenzaArcturus (USA)LUNAR-FLUVaccine with mRNA in Lipid-enabled and Unlocked Nucleomonomer Agentpreclinical development
FluStemirna (China)k. A.mRNA vaccinepreclinical devel.
InfluenzaCureVac (Germany) / GSK (UK)CV7301second generation mRNA vaccinepreclinical devel.
FluSeqirus (Australia)k. A.Vaccine with self-amplifying RNApreclinical development
Universal influenza vaccineCureVac / Bill & Melinda Gates Foundationk. A.mRNAResearch phase
Hepatitis C
hepatitis CZiphius Vaccines (Belgium)tbdself-amplifying mRNApreclinical development
HIV infections
HIV infectionModerna / International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) (USA/USA)mRNA-1644 / mRNA-1644v2 core (vaccines to be used sequentially [prime-boost concept])mRNA (for the first vaccine eOD-GT8 60mer; for the second core-g28v2 60mer)Phase I
HIV infectionModerna / National Institutes of Health (USA / USA)mRNA-1574mRNApreclinical development
HIV infectionBioNTech / B&M Gates Foundation (Germany / USA)tbdmRNATarget identification
HPV infection
HPV infectionZiphius Vaccines (Belgium)tbdself-amplifying mRNApreclinical development
Lassa fever, yellow fever
Lassa fever, yellow feverCureVac / CEPI (Germany)k. A.mRNApreclinical development
MalariaCureVac / Bill & Melinda Gates FoundationtbdmRNAResearch phase
MalariaBioNTech (Germany) / kENUP Foundation ("eradicateMalaria"-Initiative), supported by WHO and Africa Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC)tbdmRNAFundamental work with the aim of starting clinical trials by the end of 2022.
MalariaeTheRNA (Belgium)tbdmRNA vaccineDiscovery/lead phase
Metapneumovirus infection (hMPV infection)
Metapneumovuris infectionModerna (USA)mRNA-1653mRNA vaccinePhase I
NipahModerna (USA)mRNA-1215mRNApreclinical devel.
Pfeiffer's glandular fever (Epstein-Barr virus infection)
Pfeiffer's glandular fever (Epstein-Barr virus infection)Moderna (USA)mRNA-1189mRNApreclinical devel.
Rotavirus infections
Rotavirus infectionsCureVac / Bill & Melinda Gates FoundationtbdmRNAResearch phase
RSV infection (caused by respiratory syncytial virus)
RSV infectionModerna (USA)mRNA-1345mRNA vaccinePhase I
RSV infectionModerna (USA)mRNA-1172mRNA vaccinePhase I
RSV infectionCureVac (Germany)k. A.mRNApreclinical devel.
RSV infectionsZiphius Vaccines (Belgium)tbdself-amplifying mRNApreclinical development
RabiesCureVac (Germany)CV7202Vaccine with mRNA in lipid nanoparticlesPhase I
TuberculosisStemirna (China)k. A.Vaccine with mRNApreclinical development
TuberculosisBioNTech / B&M Gates Foundation (Germany / USA)tbdmRNATarget identification
ZikaModerna (USA)mRNA-1893mRNA vaccinePhase I

(1) of Emcure Pharmaceuticals

Sources: WHO + company websites